Erlewine, Michael Yoshitaka, accepted. Even doesn’t move but associates into traces: A reply to Nakanishi 2012.”
Natural Language Semantics.

Nakanishi 2012 presents a novel argument for the so-called “scope theory” of English VP-even, based on examples with antecedent-contained deletion (ACD). Nakanishi’s argument is based on the assumption that even cannot associate with a focus which has moved out of its scope. I show that this assumption is incorrect, defusing Nakanishi’s argument.

I propose that when even associates with a focus which has moved out of its scope, it actually associates with focused material in the lower copies of movement (trace positions). A closer look at Nakanishi’s ACD examples as well as additional predictions of the scope theory then form arguments against the scope theory. I conclude that English VP-even must always be interpreted in its pronounced position. The patterns of focus association with even presented here constitute a new argument for the copy theory of movement.