Certain quantificational elements (“interveners”) have long been known to disrupt the interpretation of wh-in-situ (Hoji 1985 and many others), but the correct description of the set of interveners and the nature of such intervention effects have been the subject of continued debate. Hadas Kotek and I observe a new generalization concerning the nature of intervener-hood in Japanese: A quantifier acts as an intervener if and only if it is scope-rigid. This supports the view that intervention reflects a restriction on the relative positions of interveners and wh at LF (Beck 2006 a.o.) but leads further to the surprising conclusion that any quantifier interpreted in a derived position leads to intervention. This in turn supports Hadas Kotek’s recent theory of intervention effects, independently motivated based on a close study of English wh-questions.

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